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Unit 1: Planning your essayUnit 2: Structuring paragraphsUnit 3: Introductions & conclusionsUnit 4: Writing persuasivelyUnit 5: Writing cohesively

Summary: Writing cohesively

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Writing cohesively means writing so that all the ideas and information you present are logically connected to one another. Consequently, your readers are able to see the important relationships between the individual pieces of information in your text.

Cohesion in writing is closely tied to academic expectations that your writing will be analytical, argumentative and critical. If you do not make clear the relationships between the pieces of information in your text, your writing may appear primarily descriptive.

Cohesion in writing is achieved at both macro and micro levels.

Macro level

Cohesion is enhanced through:

  • the structure and organisation of your overall text.
  • the development of your individual arguments.
  • the way in which you use paragraphs to separate the different steps and stages in your arguments.
Micro level

Cohesion is accomplished through the use of language strategies designed to bring individual pieces of information into a clear relationship with each other.

Micro-level strategies include:

  • Theme choices and Thematic progression – these ensure that central ideas and concepts are picked up in subsequent parts of the text.
  • vocabulary choices – these ensure a continuity of ideas and concepts by using strategies such as repetition, synonyms, opposites and categories of information.
  • use of conjunctions – this ensures that pieces of information are connected in particular ways e.g. by comparison or contrast.
  • use of reference – this ensures that concepts can be picked up again without being directly repeated in the text.


You have completed Module 3, Unit 5: Writing cohesively.

This is the last unit in Module 3, Structure.