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2.4 Reporting evidence

This unit looks at how students present evidence from source materials. It shows them how to use language strategies to persuasively demonstrate a point of view using the evidence to support their argument.


  • a guide to preparing evidence
  • a guide to reporting evidence persuasively
  • the reporting spectrum: distancing or endorsing in reporting evidence
  • a guide to language strategies: distancing or endorsing
  • using evaluative verbs, i.e. verbs carrying a particular meaning that conveys the writer's attitude to the evidence reported
  • using intensifiers and limiters to increase or decrease the degree of endorsement or distance
  • using modality to communicate fine shades of meaning along a positive-to-negative spectrum
  • using concessive clauses, i.e. clauses that convey a relationship between two or more pieces of information.

2.5 Referencing

This unit discusses the differences between in-text conventions and note conventions for referencing sources. It gives examples of constructing a bibliography/reference list using the Harvard, APA and Chicago styles and also gives common examples of textual references in each of these styles.

As there are a number of conventions in use and minor details can vary, students are directed to use this unit only as a guide and to consult their individual faculty, department, or unit of study guidelines to find out which referencing conventions they should follow.


  • a guide to referencing conventions in academic writing
  • notes on bibliographies, reference lists and textual references (i.e. when to use them, and how they differ).